蘇老師專欄

[ 2020-09-04 ]

從一詞多義談新冠疫情與疫後經濟詞彙 Sept 4, 20 蘇正隆

一詞多義 Polysemy

自動提款機 ATM, 
Automatic Teller Machine or Automated Teller Machine?
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「電子圍籬」Geofencing, electronic fence, electronic corralling, electric fence

臺灣利用「電子圍籬系統」有效追蹤 COVID-19確診者及居家檢疫者的行蹤,深受國際誇讚。臺灣2/19完成「電子圍籬系統」,連結健保署與移民署資料庫。鑽石公主號短暫停泊臺灣就駛往日本,疫情指揮中心利用手機訊號追蹤,一天內就將 3,000多筆旅客資料追出來,抓出了 51 個北北基熱點,並匡列出郵輪乘客接觸的 63萬人,發送簡訊示警。
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國外媒體 REUTERS及 Fox News 報導臺灣的「電子圍籬系統」:
Taiwan has also set up an “electronic fence” system that makes use of mobile telephones to alert police and authorities if those in home quarantine step out of bounds. (US News/Reuters March 17, 2020)
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The government in Taiwan-- in an effort to suppress the spread of the coronavirus-- has employed a so-called "electronic fence" that uses location tracking on mobile phones to alert authorities if someone under quarantine is on the move or turns off their phones.  (Fox News, Mar 20, 2020)
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把「電子圍籬系統」直譯為 "electronic fence",但都加上引號,Fox News 甚至刻意加上「所謂」兩個字 (so-called "electronic fence"),意味這是比較特別、跟平常不一樣的說法。因為 electronic fence 平常是指用來限制狗活動範圍的裝置

Which Is Better, a Traditional or Electronic Fence? | PetSafe ...
Should you buy a traditional physical fence made of wood or chain link? Or is a wireless or in-ground electronic fence better for your pet and yard?

Electronic Fence 也用來指「對空偵測系統」,Wikipedia 在介紹美國的 Space Detection and Tracking System (對空偵測系統) 時提到:"The Air Force had a program…, which was a network of space-probing cameras and radar. The Navy had … a space surveillance system that was "an electronic fence" that protected the southern United States.
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本來我把「電子圍籬」譯為 electronic corralling,也問過書林美國編輯,她也說可以。不過 electronic corralling 還是會讓人聯想是用來拘限狗活動的裝置。

國家教育研究院「雙語詞彙審譯會」,委員目前有 3 位本國學者,4位英美專家,李振清教授為召集人。我提議將新冠肺炎疫情相關詞彙 80則列入審譯,我提出英文初譯,其中一則就是「電子圍籬」。我們開會時,英籍委員 Peter Whittle 律師建議把 electronic corralling 改為 geofencing,我覺得很好,欣然附議。我發現 Oxford 網路詞典對 geofencing 的解釋很清楚:the use of GPS or RFID technology to create a virtual geographic boundary, enabling software to trigger a response when a mobile device enters or leaves a particular area.
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縮寫 abbreviation, acronym 或 initialism
Acronym /?akr?n?m/ an abbreviation formed from the initial letters of other words and pronounced as a word (e.g. NASA ).

中文的「縮寫」,英文有可能是 abbreviation, acronym 或 initialism。
英文的 abbreviation 則是個上位詞 (superordinate/hypernym),它包括 acronym 和 initialism。
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acronym 和 initialism 有什麼區別?
如 LASER 是雷射 (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) 的縮寫;NASA 是美國航太總署 (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) 的縮寫;OPEC 是石油輸出國家組織 (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) 的縮寫;不過我們把這些縮寫當一個字來唸,LASER 唸 /?le?·z?r/,NASA 唸 /?n?s.?/,OPEC 唸 /?o?.pek/,這樣的縮寫就是 acronym。
至於 initialism 則只是照縮寫後的個別字母唸:聯邦調查局 FBI 是 Federal Bureau of Investigation 的縮寫,就唸 F, B, I,中央情報局 CIA 是 Central Intelligence Agency 的縮寫,就唸 C, I, A。 (The abbreviation formed with initialism is not pronounced as a word, rather you say the individual letters, such as FBI & CIA.) 這樣的縮寫就是 initialism。
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檢驗時間 turnaround time or testing time?
turnaround time (TAT) means the amount of time taken to complete a process or fulfill a request.

testing times synonym, testing times definition | Thesaurus
arduous, challenging, demanding, difficult, exacting, formidable, rigorous, searching, strenuous, taxing, tough, trying.

The most testing time is undoubtedly in the early months of your return to work...  
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實驗 animal testing, human trial, human experimentation
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Intolerant & intolerable 不能忍受

He was intolerant of both suggestions and criticisms.
The people have grown intolerant in recent weeks of the King's autocratic ways.
Fashion is a form of ugliness so intolerable that we have to alter it every six months.

簡單地歸納:
intolerable 主要用於指較抽象的事物,如:行為 (conduct)、粗魯  (impudence) 惡臭 (stench)、冷熱、醜陋,讓人不能忍受。intolerable 常與介系詞 in 搭配,主詞通常為事物。 This is intolerable in a free society.
intolerant 用來指人,如人排斥批評、建議或某些食物—wheat, gluten (麩質), dairy, lactose, peanuts, seafood 等。Intolerant 常與 of 搭配,主詞通常為人。 Some people are so intolerant of homosexuality….
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Conduct & behavior 行為

improper conduct, defendant conduct, officer conduct, code of conduct
aggressive behavior, child behavior, dog behavior
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杏仁 Almond or Apricot ?
「杏仁」是很典型容易引起混淆的「一名多物」現象 (polysemy)。杏仁豆腐、杏仁茶的主要原料,以及中藥裡常用的「杏仁」(the common use of apricot kernels as a component in traditional Chinese medicine),是「杏」(apricot) 的種仁 (kernel) 製成的,usually, from the species Prunus armeniaca;而堅果的「杏仁」則是 the edible and widely cultivated seed of almond (Prunus dulcis)。
中藥杏仁有南杏、北杏之分,北杏較苦,含氰化物量較高。但南、北杏基本上都是同一種水果 apricot 的變種,杏仁是它們的種仁 (kernel),與堅果的 almond 不同。Almond 類與 apricot 係同一屬,但不同種。Almond 的果實沒什麼果肉,所以主要是吃它多脂的種子。有人主張 almond 應改名為「巴丹杏」,因為在印度,它叫 badam。
「杏仁茶」不是 *Almond tea,是 Apricot Kernel Drink;「杏仁豆腐」不是 *Almond tofu,是 Apricot Kernel Jelly。
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Olive  ? 橄欖  齊墩果/洋橄欖;Date 海棗 (椰棗) & jujube 棗子
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Rob & Steal 
2 thong-facemask robbery suspects in custody
Jun 6, 2008 - A surveillance video released last week by police shows two unarmed men inside the convenience store. They stole an undisclosed amount of ...

未持武器潛入convenience store偷走an undisclosed amount of cash and cigarettes 怎能叫搶案? → 竊案
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★ 「零號病人 patient zero」的由來?「抗原 antigen」與「抗體 antibody」代表什麼意義?什麼是「踩線團 fam trip」?
★ 「隱性感染」英文怎麼說?「(採檢) 介於陰陽之間」如何用英語表達?
★ 「 振興三倍券,數位券,實體券,類現金,酷碰券,補償消費,報復性消費,累積病例,疫情曲線,解封,疫情重災區」英文怎麼說?

以訛傳訛≠約定俗成≠積非成是

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